A Spring in Our Step – May 2018 Update

Following the excitement of SAFE DevCon 2018 in late April, May has been a month of hard work that culminated in the release of PARSEC.  This latest innovation is not only an amazing achievement for the MaidSafe team but also a paradigm shift for asynchronous and permissionless consensus that could benefit many projects.  

Going from Strength to Strength
More on PARSEC later but let’s have a look at some of the other developments first. As announced at SAFE DevCon 2018, we are removing our commercial licence and the contributor agreement to reaffirm our commitment to open source.  The team have therefore been spending time switching of core libraries and SAFE client libs as well as creating documentation (these will be hosted on the newly created SAFE Dev Hub) to assist other developers with understanding these changes. There will be some exceptions to the GPLv3 including the networking library in Crust which will be MIT and BSD licensed. We hope this will increase flexibility for those who fork these libraries and will ultimately lead to more developers using Rust.

This month the team kick started the process of replacing C libraries with pure Rust versions.  This should make implementation easier and simplify cross platform support. There also continues to be significant progress made on our custom browser Peruse and we hope to release an updated version to the community soon.

Following the great work done by community advocate Mark @happybeing the team has also been researching possible SOLID integrations and full support for semantic web applications. We think the SAFE Network could be the perfect fit for semantic web and hope to encourage more developers to consider the SAFE Network.  

We have also been lucky enough to be invited to the Decentralized Web Summit in San Francisco this summer.   This is a crucial meeting of minds of this sector and it is a great place to cultivate ideas, collaborations and spread the SAFE Network message.  

Thanks to the work of the newly expanded UX/UI team the new website is making steady progress.  Following a design personas and user journey phase the team have created a series of mood boards which are now informing the initial design phases.  We hope to be able to share these with the community very soon.

This biggest news this month, is the release of a new asynchronous BFT consensus mechanism, PARSEC, on 23rd May.  PARSEC, Protocol for Asynchronous, Reliable, Secure and Efficient Consensus is an asynchronous byzantine fault tolerant consensus mechanism. Developed for the SAFE Network but for the benefit of everyone, the details of this innovation have been documented in this RFC and Whitepaper and the code will be open source once implemented.  As always we are happy to hear from other projects for future collaborations using PARSEC. Rust Developer and one of the  authors Pierre walks us through this major break-through in this fantastic video. Pierre also spoke to the SAFE Crossroads podcast about PARSEC, please give it a listen! There is of course a lot of discussion on our community forum if you have any questions or need a more in depth understanding.   This sounds like an amazing innovation but what does it really mean for the implementation of the SAFE Network? Well with PARSEC in place we can now do much more, 2 additional papers will be released in the coming weeks detailing how we can achieve dynamic membership consensus as well as network sharding.  This achievement will also significantly reduce the number of test networks we need to run going forward. The addition of add, remove split, merge and secure messaging relay will be complete by alpha 3 and this marks the end of the unknown phase of development.

New Faces  
The SAFE Network team continues to grow; Ravinder joined the team in the Chennai office as a C# developer, he is settling in well and make we are looking forward to seeing what he can bring to the project.

Press are Taking Notice 
TechCrunch has released a great article on PARSEC which you can read here. Nick and David were recently interviewed for BBC Radio Scotland’s “Sunday Morning with…” programme.  You can hear the whole interview here from 1:17:25. Sarah’s recent Medium post on Safecoin has provoked some really interesting discussion on the forum. Dug has been interviewed for FutureTech podcast, we will post the link across our social media channels and forum once it is live.

Stay tuned to see what June has to bring!


SAFE DevCon 2018: A Hive of Industry

What a day!

We’d like to say a massive thank you to everyone who joined us — both in person and online — at SAFE DevCon 2018. It was a unique occasion, as the entire global MaidSafe team joined developers who travelled from all around the world to take part in the SAFE Network’s first ever European developer conference in Ayr.

SAFE DevCon 2018, Ayr, Scotland

With most of the attendees checked staying in the same hotel, everyone was at the venue and ready to go nice and early for a day that was packed with talks from both the core MaidSafe team and members of high-profile community projects on the SAFE Network. And, of course, the evening saw conversations continuing long into the night for the second evening in a row.

Preparations for SAFE DevCon 2018

All talks were streamed live online and the individual videos due to be released within the next couple of days. Please subscribe to our YouTube channel and enable notifications to find out as soon as the conference videos.

Dug Campbell (MaidSafe) kicking off SAFE DevCon 2018

As expected, it was a packed room that settled down early in the morning to see founder David Irvine kick off the conference by outlining the vision behind the SAFE Network. Explaining why the SAFE platform is critical for the future of data and communications, David also made some key announcements that support the building of the SAFE Network and making it easier for new developers to get involved, including:

  • Locking the core SAFE Network libraries open by removing the MaidSafe Commercial Licence from all libraries
  • Increasing flexibility for app developers by relicensing the APIs and bindings to either MIT or BSD licenses
  • The launch of the SAFE Developer Hub, a new online resource for SAFE developers to find out more about key concepts, APIs, tutorials and more
  • Release of a new video explaining Safecoin, the world’s currency for security and privacy

Founder David Irvine & CTO Viv Rajkumar with the opening keynote of SAFE DevCon 2018

CTO Viv Rajkumar then joined him on stage to talk about recent progress in development towards a live network, and provided a great insight into the up-and-coming Alpha 3 network and beyond.

Discussions then moved to SAFE Network app development, where front-end lead Krishna Kumar unveiled the plans for new platform support as well as further new features.

Krishna Kumar (MaidSafe) running through life at the front end of the SAFE Network

Next up back-end lead Spandan Sharma ran the delegates through an overview of the SAFE Network backend and the recent enhancements made to the network’s networking libraries Crust and Routing.

Back end team lead Spandan Sharma (MaidSafe) updating SAFE DevCon 2018 on progress

After a well-earned coffee break, Nikita Baksalyar took the first talk of the next session in which he explained his team’s focus on expanding language support, enabling apps to be built in many more languages and the approach toward expanding the language bindings.

Nikita Baksalyar (MaidSafe) explaining the libraries and bindings of the SAFE Network

Gabriel Viganotti then took to the stage to explain the newly-launched SAFE DevHub in more detail as well as the various additional tools available to developers which include the various test network options, web API playground and demo applications.

Gabriel Viganotti (MaidSafe) takes new developers through how to start developing on the SAFE Network

After lunch, COO Nick Lambert and Sarah Pentland shared their thoughts on community building and marketing, with Nick confirmed that two additional exchanges will be listing MaidSafeCoin in the coming weeks while Sarah provided an in-depth look at the state of the SAFE Network by summarising the growth of the global SAFE community.

Nick Lambert (COO, MaidSafe) discussing community building

Sarah Pentland (MaidSafe) reviews the State of the SAFE Network

The stage was then turned over to some of the hugely impressive projects and developers that are being built independently on the SAFE Network. Clearly the current Alpha 2 status of the Network wasn’t holding back these projects as they showed off their respective applications in a range of presentations, including:-

James Littlejohn discussing SAFEflow for decentralised health science

Harmen Klink, Founder of Project Decorum discussing decentralised SAFE social platforms

David Brown explaining his work on archiving Wikipedia on the SAFE Network

Joseph Meagher talks about The Safey Project

Josh Wilson (MaidSafe) introduces Mark Hughes’ work integrating the SOLID Project and the SAFE Network

With each of these community projects representing the culmination of many hours of work by the teams, the general feedback from delegates was that the afternoon session left two strong impressions:

  1. each of these projects has immense potential as we get closer to the full launch of the Network; and
  2. there’s an immense amount of work going on here within the community. It might be beneath the radar of those who aren’t checking into the forums regularly. But it only takes a cursory glance at the activity here before you start to get a feel for the hive of activity that is actually taking place.

This is a community that was represented by folk from countries all over the world — in a number of cases, people who had flown for more than 24 hours to spend no more than 48 hours in Scotland, just to get the opportunity to meet others working on the SAFE Network. The SAFE Network will be a global solution — and that was highlighted by the fact that SAFE DevCon attracted delegates from all over the world, including Australia, New Zealand, the Canary Islands, Japan, Holland, Slovakia, Ireland, Canada, the US, Czech Republic, Indonesia and Argentina, amongst many others.

Coffee break at SAFE DevCon 2018

More coffee and chat at SAFE DevCon 2018

So once again, thank you to everyone who made the trip and to those who watched online. We can’t wait to hear the first stories about people who either have been inspired by the talks, or will be motivated by the videos, to head along to the DevHub and start building their own decentralised applications for the SAFE Network.

We’ve started planning SAFE DevCon 2019 already….

So the only question is…who’s up for it?

Note: a special shout-out must go to Mark Hughes (@happybeing on the Forum) whose talk at SAFE DevCon 2018 explaining his work integrating SOLID with the SAFE Network has now attracted the support of Sir Tim Berners-Lee. Watch this space…

The Power of Stories to Build Networks

Over the last year, we’ve watched with interest as the tech industry press published various articles inspired by HBO’s hugely popular ‘Silicon Valley’ TV show. Although the show is one of those rare beasts – one that’s both funny and accurate about the industry it’s parodying – it was the story of an attempt by a wacky startup to pivot and build a decentralised internet that really captured their attention.

As the articles point out, the startup’s idea is not quite as crazy as it first sounds, with each one explaining that this type of work is actually taking place in the real world. For the most part, these articles then focused on a few specific companies who’ve recently been working in a similar area. But there was little, if any, mention of MaidSafe or the SAFE Network (something that was pointed out in various places by our community on the Safenet Forum amongst other places).

So for those who watched the series premiere of Season 5 of ‘Silicon Valley’ earlier this week, the eagle-eyed amongst you might have noticed a few familiar names at the end of the show…

Silicon Valley Credits

Credits from Season 5 of ‘Silicon Valley’

Yes, that’s right – David, Nick and Viv have had a number of conversations behind the scenes with the team behind Silicon Valley. We were delighted to provide advice to the production team of Silicon Valley (including a face to face meeting at the studios in Hollywood). Mind you, we’re not holding out for that trip in kilts to the Emmys quite yet….  

You might ask why, with so many other things going on, we got involved. The answer’s quite straightforward really. As one of the most established ‘groups’ in this area, we’ve been working away at building a new decentralised internet since 2006. We understand both the crucial importance and the complexity of pulling off such an audacious goal – and we’ll continue to do all that we can to support the awareness of what a decentralised web means for the world.

Significant changes in society are the culmination of many different factors. And it’s important to remember that every great societal change is preceded by the stories that first get created, shared and adopted by individuals. Stories bring people together, creating natural networks of individuals. They create the foundations that allow networks to grow and ultimately enable us to pursue goals collectively that are far greater than any one person can achieve alone. The pattern has been repeated time and again throughout history. And it’s a sign of the times that we live in that the focus of our obsession with the SAFE Network has now become the subject of a top-ranked TV show.

It’s hard to imagine the same thing happening even a couple of years ago. But today every one of us can now see different flavours of the same basic stories around data security becoming increasingly popular as conversation themes across many different groups. And as these stories spread, so do the numbers of concerned people who engage publicly with issues that we all must ultimately resolve around topics such as Facebook and Cambridge Analytica (amongst so many others). 

Admittedly, we’re sensitive to the fact that these stories are building – because we are utterly committed to the goals of the decentralised web. Today’s internet is broken. It’s not just affecting the privacy of individual consumers. It is now leading to censorship, fake news and attempts (often successful as we now discover) to interfere in the democratic process. We passionately believe that we have to take a stand to defend what we believe to be the fundamental values of the internet: openness, privacy and freedom of expression.

It’s great to see such a high profile award-winning show take on these all-too-prescient topics. But it’s about far more than that. For us, it’s fantastic to watch as these goals become shared by ever greater numbers of people and collectively we can sense the pent-up demand for action before it’s too late. So please now, more than ever, help us to spread the word that a change is needed. The decentralised internet is coming. We can’t guarantee the SAFE Network will be live by the end of Season 5…..but we can guarantee that we won’t stop until we’ve delivered it.


Yesterday we were informed that Bittrex are going to be delisting MaidSafeCoin. The suddenness of the news, which takes effect on the 9th of March, came as a surprise. The rapidly changing regulatory landscape in the US (where Bittrex are based) is evidenced with the SEC taking a greater interest and more proactive approach in cryptocurrencies. While we can’t say too much about the process that led to the decision (as we had been asked to sign NDAs) the reason provided was MaidSafeCoin’s current lack of utility on the SAFE Network.

What next

We appreciate liquidity is very important to MaidSafeCoin holders and moving forward we are currently having discussions with multiple exchanges and have already put plans in place to list with a large exchange outside the US. We will be working with them on promoting the new listing and we’ll make a joint announcement about this as soon as we can. MaidSafeCoin continues to be traded on Poloniex, HitBTC, Upbit, Cryptopia and CoinSpot.

For those who have coins listed on Bittrex they confirm on their website that they will give users “…up to 14 days to withdraw any delisted tokens, but in certain instances the withdrawal period may be shortened. Users should withdraw any tokens before the posted withdrawal deadline.”

Focus remains on product

This announcement comes at a time when things are going well within the company and the community. Our team has continued to grow with quite a few new recruits being hired in recent weeks. The company is also well funded and there is more than sufficient resources to facilitate Network beta launch and market the network.

We’re also looking forward to hosting SAFE DevCon 2018 on the 23rd of April 2018 in Ayr, Scotland as it represents a fantastic opportunity to spend some time with part of our 7,500 strong community who are actively developing a number of apps that include decentralised content management systems (SAFE CMS), a decentralized music player (JAMS), file storage (SAFE FS), mail applications and many more. Many of these apps are already designed to support the SAFE Networks new bespoke web browser which is currently being community tested.

This continued focus on ‘the product’ is where we believe we provide real value, both to the world at large and to holders of MaidSafeCoin.

So despite this setback, there is much to be optimistic about in the near future. We will update you with additional exchange listings in collaboration with our partners and keep you updated with development updates weekly via the forum.

Announcing SAFE DevCon 2018


SAFE DevCon 2018

We’re happy to announce that we’re running our second DevCon in Ayr!

On Monday 23rd April 2018, the global MaidSafe team will be descending on Ayr Racecourse for an event that’s focused primarily on developers who are currently working (or wanting to work) on SAFE Network apps.

Whilst we’ve held various events previously (not least the conference in Asia in 2017) and the community has been running meetups around the world for the past few years, it’s the first time that we’ll have all the team in one location for a day solely dedicated to the SAFE Network.

The full agenda will be published in a couple of weeks – but you can assume that we’ll have a wide range of speakers from across the different areas of the protocol running through the existing state of the SAFE Network, laying out the plans for the year ahead and highlighting a few of the many apps that are flourishing independently from developers around the world.

For 2018, we’ve decided to keep the numbers small. For developers that can make their way to Ayr, we’ll be covering the costs of two night’s accommodation around the Conference. If we have too many applicants, we’ll choose by drawing names from a hat and get back to each applicant (hopefully by Thursday 22nd February) to confirm whether they’ve been successful in securing a ticket.

And those of you within the Community who live around the world and won’t be able to travel, don’t worry – we plan to stream the whole event live and share the videos afterwards.

So if you’d like to come along, take the unique opportunity to meet the full MaidSafe team and hear the very latest about all things SAFE Network, please email us directly at (including your safenetforum handle).


MaidSafe Developer Conference 2017

If someone would have told us that our first developer conference would be held 7,500 miles away from Troon we would most certainly not have believed them. However, on the 20th of February, in conjunction with our partners at MaidSafe Asia, we found ourselves Fairmont Hotel in Jakarta hosting MaidSafe Devcon 1. With a population of 300 million Indonesia is one of Asia’s most populated countries. With a thriving developer scene and a highly motivated populace, Jakarta, the country’s capital, proved to be an excellent location.

Short note about MaidSafe Asia

We first announced the intention to set up a joint venture in 2016 and we are now delighted to be able to confirm that the agreement has been signed off and the entity MaidSafe Asia has been incorporated in Singapore. As a quick refresher, the intention in setting up this partnership is to enable MaidSafe UK to focus on developing the network, scale the development team and support developers on the platform. MaidSafe Asia’s priorities are to raise awareness, reach out to developers and generally market the technology. In fact, the name MaidSafe Asia maybe somewhat misleading as we start to discuss extending the area in which the new entity operates. This is a fluid situation and we will keep everyone updated as things progress. Anyway, back to the conference.

Different attitudes

The conferences 250 attendees came from all across Indonesia with some groups even travelling from Singapore and beyond. Many of the developers were freelancers, but also included those working for companies, and some very eager students.

During the morning session, Nick introduced the high level concepts of the SAFE Network and issues with the existing Internet, and the problems caused by it’s current centralised architecture. David spoke later during the morning session, describing MaidSafe’s vision, and the benefits the platform will offer to developers.

David explains the vision

David explains the vision

Nick describes centralised threats

Nick describes centralised threats


What struck us speaking with local people both during and after the event was the different attitudes that both users and developers have toward data security. Both of these issues are becoming of ever increasing importance in the UK and Europe, but these concerns are not shared to the same extent in Indonesia. Developers in Indonesia are more excited by the prospect of being able to compete with large technology companies using SAFEs costless infrastructure, and the concept of Safecoin was something that also seemed to resonate, with many liking the built in revenue streams that it provides. Monetisation it seems is a more significant factor.


After presenting at the main conference, David and Nick went to speak with members of the press and were joined by Coin Payments CEO Alex Alexandrov. Coin Payments, a partner of MaidSafe Asia, are the largest alt coin payment processor in the world, processing in excess of $50million of transactions per month and have 132,000 vendors across 182 different countries. Processing over 55 alt coins, including of course MaidSafeCoin, the company have been great supporters of the the SAFE Network and are great advocates of our technology. They have also created their own MaidSafeCoin wallet and offer secure coin storage via their vault. You can find out more on their website.

Getting down to business

By the time that Krishna’s developer workshop started in the afternoon session, the polite and shy audience had lost any inhibitions, and became animated and engaged as Krishna explained the networks data types, the core concepts behind the APIs, before going on to showcase the developer tutorials that have been created. It was evident from the questions that followed Krishna’s first afternoon session that the audience had taken much of the information on board.

Developers put Krishna through his paces

Developers put Krishna through his paces

Krishna explains the APIs

Krishna explains the APIs


Krishna’s second session focussed upon the current transition from our REST API paradigm, which while being language agnostic does not cater well for mobile devices. REST demands that the devices hold state which is problematic given the fact that mobile devices automatically disconnect from networks after very short periods. Explaining our current transition to an SDK, he gave an overview of the plans for the next few months, specifically the transitioning of the existing example applications and producing new developer documentation.

After the closing remarks the event finished with much hand shaking and more questions from the attendees whom it cannot be emphasised enough where some of the most friendly conference attendees we have ever had the pleasure to meet. It was also great to see so many female coders, who, while still outnumbered by their male counterparts, were as well represented as we have seen at any recent conference we have attended.

The following day, David and Nick gave filmed interviews with CNN Indonesia. The interviewer politely confirmed our suspicions that Indonesians are not as concerned as we are in Europe regards security and privacy of data, but are very much interested in the sharing economy and the desire to contribute to a crowd sourced Internet. Maybe in time attitudes will change, although maybe they won’t have to as the SAFE Network continues to roll out and starts to deliver the security and privacy many Britons and Europeans value so highly.

Developer Case Study – Dsensor

Decentralized Mapping Protocol Project – Dsensor

Continuing our series of case studies highlighting early stage application development on the SAFE (Secure Access For Everyone) Network, Dsensor is being developed by James Littlejohn. James explored various platforms to store and protect the data he would be collecting and decided to use the SAFE Network, because it reflected his belief that the network should not be driven by economics, but be focused first and foremost on the data.

MaidSafe’s fully secure, decentralised approach supported James’ view that knowledge or data should be in the complete control of user. While it is early days, Dsensor’s use of the SAFE Network APIs in its proof of concept form shows its potential as a viable platform for the management of data. James was also attracted to the SAFE Network, because of its strong encryption, and its ability to break data into chunks before scattering it around the decentralised network of nodes. This ensures the highest possible security and privacy for users when combined with the decentralised architecture, which avoids offering hackers central points of attack on a network, as we experience in today’s centralised, server-based model.

Being open source and supported by a strong community in the SAFE Network forum also means James has ready access to experts and potential partners, who can help to build out the application and trouble-shoot any technical questions. In the future James may also explore using safecoin to incentivise participation on Dsensor.

The Problem with Science

James Littlejohn has been involved in entrepreneurial projects since the dot com boom and while investigating opportunities around text mining identified an opportunity for lifestyle linking analytics, particularly in the area of wearable tech. In the course of his evaluation he recognised a broader application to data mining and analysis in the field of scientific and academic research. James assessed a number of drivers, including emerging technologies and changing economic conditions, which were beginning to have an effect on the way research was conducted.

Firstly, walled garden applications such as Facebook and wearable technologies were becoming more prevalent, and while they were a rich source of data on human activity, access to that information was restricted. At a time when the internet is supposed to be democratising many aspects of work and social life this is endangering an important source of information on lifestyle and health patterns, which could benefit societies around the world.

Secondly, the sustained economic impact of the financial crisis was creating significant pressure on public funding for research at a time when it was needed more than ever. Technology and the availability of large amounts of data is leading to opportunities for breakthroughs in a wide variety of academic and research fields. If the funding is not available via traditional public sources then there is an urgent to find new forms of investment. The rise of alternative cryptocurrencies could potentially address this point, offering a new, fairer way to incentivise and reward individuals for participating in research projects. For example, James envisages a scenario where the grant funder might ‘tokenise’ a percentage of their funding money and issue it via a science blockchain (like Dsensor). This would help to ensure the funding could be traced directly ensuring good governance of scientific research projects and fairer access to resources.

The final driver for a new model reflects an on-going debate about the model of peer-reviewed scientific research. For a number of years there has been a recognition of some fundamental weaknesses in the model in areas such as the replicability of research. In a poll conducted by Nature in May 2016 more than 70% of researchers admitted they had tried and failed to reproduce the experiments of other scientists and more than 50% failed to reproduce their own experiments. Of course this is in part due to the nature of frontier scientific research, which is reliant on trial and error, but there are clearly inefficiencies in the process.

Furthermore, there are questions about efficiency of current research models – in 2009 Chalmers and Glaziou identified some key sources of avoidable waste in biomedical research. They estimated that the cumulative effect was that about 85% of research investment – equating to about $200 billion of the investment in 2010 – is wasted. A blockchain provides a potential solution to this reproducibility crisis as Dr. Sönke Bartling and Benedikt Fecher outline in their paper, “Blockchain for science and knowledge creation.” Although scientific research should be delivered at arm’s length from the individual contributors it is ultimately reliant on individual scientists to gather and interpret data without bias. It is also often reliant on finite data sets, controlled samples or clinical trials, thus limiting the ability to cross reference the findings against other data sources.

Given the availability of data via the internet and the rise of automation technologies, such as machine learning, James believes that if individuals have control of their information they can decide to contribute their information to research projects without the interference of third parties such as academics or technology providers. Using automation scientists, academics – and more importantly citizen scientists – can draw data from anywhere in the world beyond the confines of a specific controlled sample and review independently to provide a data driven outcome.

Building A Blockchain for Science Research – A Truth Engine for Mankind

James’ investigation of text mining approaches led him to peer to peer models, which were enabling the owners of data to take control of how and with whom their information was shared.  

It led to the development of (Decentralized Mapping Protocol), a peer to peer network for science knowledge to be investigated, discovered and shared. It has been based on the principle of science “SenseMaking” and it is designed to evolve peer review to a computational consensus model.  Using Dsensor if a scientist creates a thesis and wants to test it the scientist enters the hypothesis in computational form (called a Dmap in Dsensor speak) . The Mapping protocol then automates the testing of the science, starting by trawling the Dsensor network for relevant data from other peers. That data is then sampled and ‘scored’ based on its prediction power to verify or challenge the thesis until a computation consensus is established.  Science attaining this status then becomes ‘computationally active’ in the network meaning any peer has the ability to tap into the collective knowledge and feed in their own unique sensor data get the insights from the science working for them.

James has the ambitious goal to become a “truth engine for mankind” ensuring science is based on openness, transparency and reproducible results, essentially checking the accuracy of peer review.  Dsensor intends to deliver this outcome by building a network of trustless peers, which has inherit vast complexity making it economically and technically very costly and difficult to corrupt.  Dsensor, currently at proof of concept stage utilises  the Ethereum blockchain, using its cryptography and a variant of the proof of work process to create a technological and mathematical state where even with colluding computers it is impossible to game the system.   Rather than creating complexity using a proof of work Dsensor creates uncertainty using random sampling, in particular the selection of peers from the network and data sampling techniques.  The data sampling techniques are selected by each autonomous peer and the network sampling is a property of the Protocol for selecting peers from a Distributed Hash Table. In theory once the network gains a certain size the economic cost of gaming the network with false sensor data to support a fraudulent scientific computation will become extremely costly.

Additional safeguards include the role of reproducibility in science.  This creates an immutable audit trail or “mapping accounting” entries that support the most truthful science available to the network.  These networks are called GaiaBlocks and are open to be challenged by any peer on the network.  Scoring of the science also provides a rating model for scientific research and individual peers on the network.  Peers with poor outcomes will be demoted in favour of more highly rated scientific computations.